- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Theory suggests that proximal contextual variables contribute to women’s underrepresentation in STEM fields. We therefore examined relationships between stereotype threat as a proximal contextual variable and academic self-efficacy. We also examined the influence of self-efficacy for coping with educational barriers on those relationships. A total of 211 women undergraduate students majoring in engineering fields (73% White, mean age = 21 years) responded to measures of stigma consciousness and stereotype vulnerability as proxies for stereotype threat, along with measures of self-efficacy for coping with barriers (CWB) and academic self-efficacy. Stigma consciousness (in the form of awareness of sexism and negative attitudes about women), but not stereotype vulnerability, negatively related to women’s confidence in their abilities to complete a college degree in a engineering major field. Results of a moderation model indicated a significant interaction of CWB and stigma consciousness on academic self-efficacy, with no such interaction effect for stereotype vulnerability. Our findings add to the proximal contextual barriers framework within Social Cognitive Career Theory by uncovering the existence of negative relationships between consciousness of discrimination due to group identity and academic self-efficacy. Promoting positive identity and constructive interaction with the environment may support women’s career development in engineering fields.
Research has shown a consistent underrepresentation of women and minority students earning degrees in engineering fields (NSB, 2012). This disparity contributes to discrepancies in opportunity, income, and social mobility for women. To address this problem, the current study focused on the intersection of social identity and environment as a barrier for female college students in engineering majors and responded to calls for understanding the implications for individuals when contextual barriers become internalized (Byars & Hackett, 1998; Lent et al., 2000; Lent et al., 2001). Specifically, we used stigma consciousness and stereotype vulnerability to determine whether the perception and awareness stereotypes regarding one’s gender relate to academic self-efficacy. Additionally, self-efficacy for coping with barriers to education was included as a variable that could lead to an understanding of how levels of confidence in responding to educational barriers might buffer the effect of negative stereotypes. Thus, we also responded to a call for advancing research on SCCT with implications for the potential development of interventions to assist individuals in coping with environmentally imposed barriers (Lent et al., 2000).