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- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Green Analytical Chemistry and Green Chemistry
Since the 1970s decade, novel analytical methodologies have been introduced to improve the analytical figures of merit of previous methods, and also to reduce the undesirable side effects, like operator risk, environment contamination, consumption of reagents and solvents, waste generation, and so on. In this sense, different strategies were considered to improve analytical methods based on automation, miniaturization, direct and multianalyte analysis, and reduction of solvents, reagents and wastes together with the replacement of toxic reagents by innocuous ones, as it can be seen in Fig. 1 that shows the progress on the concepts related with green analytical chemistry and the main milestones since the 1970s. The increasing environmental conscience of analytical chemistry was firstly introduced as “Ecological Paradigm” by Malissa, in 1987, indicating that today Analytical Chemistry must be closely implicated in the preservation of our ecosystem and actively contribute to the protection of the environment and the operator safety. De la Guardia and Ruzicka in 1995 edited the first international scientific journal issue devoted to sustainable methods and introduced the “Environmentally Friendly Analytical Chemistry” concept, based on the replacement or reduction of toxic chemicals to harmless ones by the incorporation of (i) robotics, (ii) miniaturized chromatograph systems, (iii) flow techniques as flow injection analysis or sequential injection analysis, and (iv) sensor technologies. Green Chemistry concept was introduced by Anastas and Warner in 19981 indicating the environmental implication in the development of chemical products and processes. Thus, Green Chemistry must contribute to avoid, or reduce, the negative impacts of chemical activities on human health and the environment. This concept is based on (i) the reduction of reagent and solvent consumption, (ii) the reduction of wastes, (iii) the proposal of recycling, passivation or degradation of toxic wastes, and (iv) the use, if possible, of remote sensing and direct analysis of samples without treatment. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry were proposed as a list of guidelines to conduct in order to make more environmentally sustainable (greener) a chemical, process or product. They were summarized under the acronym PRODUCTIVELY and emphasized aspects like atom economy, toxicity of reagents, energetic efficiency, or method safety.