- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
When the future of global energy markets is discussed, two main concerns feature regularly. One is climate change and carbon output, an issue beyond the scope of this paper. The other is the question whether growth in energy demand will exceed the resources available to fuel continued economic growth and industrialisation, especially in the non-OECD economies. The paper contributes to this second question, with a particular focus on energy intensity and demand. It is an attempt to draw lessons from past experiences with periods of industrialisation and structural change, and the impact they had on energy demand. The reason for this attempt originates with the need to assess future energy demand for the next 20 years in BP’s Energy Outlook 2030 (BP, 2012). The Energy Outlook 2030 forecasts future fuel trends for the period 2011–2030. It builds upon BP’s longstanding work on the Statistical Review of World Energy, which documents trends in the production and use of energy. The results of the 2030 Outlook are largely derived ‘‘top down’’: global energy demand trends are assessed and national (or regional) demand is derived using assumptions on population growth, GDP growth and changes in end-user demand. In a similar fashion, regional supply availability is assessed fuel by fuel, capacity and other constraints are taken into account, and substitutability evaluated; then, in an iterative process, demand and supply schedules and prices are determined.