دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی تولید آب در یک جنگل بارانی برزیلی: مفاهیمی برای مدیریت منابع آب – الزویر ۲۰۱۸
|عنوان فارسی:||تولید آب در یک جنگل بارانی برزیلی: مفاهیمی برای مدیریت منابع آب|
|عنوان انگلیسی:||Water production in a Brazilian montane rainforest: Implications for water resources management|
|تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی : 8||تعداد صفحات ترجمه فارسی : ترجمه نشده|
|سال انتشار : 2018||نشریه : الزویر - Elsevier|
|فرمت مقاله انگلیسی : PDF||کد محصول : E8144|
|محتوای فایل : PDF||حجم فایل : Kb 500|
|رشته های مرتبط با این مقاله: مهندسی منابع طبیعی، محیط زیست|
|گرایش های مرتبط با این مقاله: جنگلداری|
|مجله: علم و سیاست محیط زیستی - Environmental Science and Policy|
|دانشگاه: Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais - Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz - Brazil|
|کلمات کلیدی: خدمات محیط زیستی، هزینه برای خدمات آبخیزداری، پارک ملی، اقتصاد محیطی، شمال شرقی برزیل|
The objective of this study was to evaluate water production within a national park in order to characterize quantity and quality when associated with preserved landscapes in rainforests. After acquiring the necessary quali-quantitative information, a second objective was defined, aiming to propose a new approach for water valuation in preserved forest areas within a scenario of integrated water resources management. Field campaigns were conducted in subwatersheds within the Serra das Lontras National Park in order to collect hydrological and hydrochemical data. Results showed that the effluent streams presented perennial water production of 4,000 l ha−1 day−1 in the most conservative scenario. Regardless of flow rate regimes, waters were well-oxygenated and presented low salinity and low concentration of total suspended solids. These results prove the effectiveness of a montane rainforest in providing protection to water bodies and in delivering important ecosystem services. Thus, we propose the inclusion payments policies for watershed services (PWS) by water resources management from an alternative approach. In conclusion, these policies could be reviewed with the objective of adding water valuation, making programs more robust and attractive to rural producers and other stakeholders. Water catchment and treatment agencies could also be part of this process, including PWS in their revenue budgets, and using their prices to stimulate the ecosystem service market.
The results found in the present study showed that the effluent streams of the area of SLNP presented water production in a perennial regime of at least 4,000 l ha−1 day−1 , with excellent quality. A preserved rainforest area may provide important ecosystem services with operational conditions and accessible economic costs to Brazil. Water in quantity and quality is a product of these ecosystem services in SLNP, and may certainly be explored by an integrated water resources management framework that seeks to guarantee significant water production in watersheds using policies such as PES-PWS.
In face of the water production scenario detected in SLNP and PESPWS policy in Brazil, the authors propose a review of the current mechanisms of these programs, with the objective of market strengthening, increasing robustness and attractiveness to rural producers. This review could include, in addition to payments for the maintenance of preserved areas, payments also for the water that is effectively produced by this same area, based on values charged by water catchment and treatment agencies from water users. We show that there is operational and financial compatibility for adhesion of PWS programs by these agencies, being this a potential mechanism to reach a higher stimulation of the ecosystem service market. The watersheds should not be managed from an empty green discourse but rather respected as a business partners, with PWS as part of infrastructure strategies that can ensure water security.