- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
The purpose of this study was to identify, summarize, and synthesize all doctoral dissertations completed using Trochim’s concept mapping methodology between 1985 and 2014. A comprehensive search produced a set of 108 eligible dissertations; of which 104 were available as full-text or hard copy. The studies were coded on 77 variables, which were summarized in descriptive analyses. The dissertations were conducted in a wide variety of topic areas and completed at 35 different universities in the US and Canada. On comparable variables, the results were similar to two prior syntheses (Trochim, 1993; Rosas & Kane, 2012). The mean multidimensional scaling analysis stress value for 96 concept maps was 0.26 with a standard deviation of 0.05. Cumulative rates of dissertation completion and resulting citations of the dissertations and any resulting articles were plotted over the study period. Reliability and validity were considered in most studies but formally assessed in a minority of cases. The review concludes with a summary of findings and thoughts about future studies.
The purpose of this review was to examine the breadth and depth of concept mapping in the set of identified dissertations written since 1985. Among the first conclusions to be drawn is support for the remarkable flexibility of the method. As Kane and Trochim (2007) put it: “ . . . the concept mapping analysis is a standardized approach, but it allows for tremendous flexibility and adaptability to address different kinds of questions and problems” (p.108). The variety of topics and research questions observed in the dissertation review ranged from topics near its origins in structured conceptualization in evaluation research to distal topics in medicine, civil engineering, business and many other fields. In addition, the procedures employed generally followed the standard steps closely but evidenced adaptability in extensions to theoretical and applied problems of many kinds. Some of the innovative methods used by students merit replication and refinement as the CM/PM method evolves. For example, internal validity did not receive as much attention as other forms of validity, but one study (Adu, 2011) developed a video to demonstrate sorting and rating. Further study of methods of reducing noise in sorting and rating data may prove to be valuable in enhancing internal validity. Most dissertations did not systematically collect feedback on the process from participants, and usability was not a focus of the present analysis, but there was evidence of participant confusion, frustration and fatigue in some of the studies, which may have negatively impacted internal validity