- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
The appropriate selection and implementation of technology in instruction is made possible by teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). The TPACK that inservice teachers develop is practitioner-based and can be continuously transformed with teaching experiences. In this study, we constructed video-embedded and discipline-focused questionnaires to measure science teachers' TPACK. Item sets were generic across four disciplines and designed to investigate teachers' TPACK at different levels of the cognitive process. Each questionnaire was embedded with three instructional clips in which preservice teachers demonstrated their previously-prepared lessons on selected topics in biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. Through exploratory factor analysis, four factors (i.e., evaluation, evaluation/synthesis, application/analysis, and knowledge/comprehension) emerged from the data. The presumed hierarchical interrelationships among these cognitive processes were investigated through a path analysis. The findings indicated that teachers’ TPACK at the knowledge/comprehension level made significant loadings to TPACK at higher levels, but this was not the case for application/analysis. The disconnect for application/analysis within the simple-to-complex cognitive process hierarchy suggests that it should be viewed as different from the other three constructs that incorporate more instructional reasoning. The designs for the questionnaire items and embedded instructional clips that were used to elicit teachers’ practical knowledge are presented herein.
Teachers' knowledge is a complex construct that transforms individually and is defined situatively. Analogous to student learning, measurements for teachers' knowledge development are useful if the distinctiveness of the teacher can be accommodated and instructional dispositions elicited from authentic situations. Evaluations do not need to be for assessment purpose only; instead, learning and evaluation can be mutually enriching. Instructional clips can offer useful resources for teachers to study, reflect upon, discuss, and even be assessed by, if the clip selection and evaluation rubrics are properly attended. In addition to the progressive stages that other researchers have identified in teachers' TPACK development, it should be noted that teachers' TPACK that operates higher-order cognitive processes is not necessarily constructed at the lower process levels, such as application and analysis. Rigorous effort needs to be made in strengthening teachers' knowledge/ comprehension, since it plays pivotal roles in determining the quality of the input (content, technology, pedagogy, or its integration). Mere uses of technology with a lack of pedagogical reasoning may not be critical to teachers’ attainment of higher-order TPACK processing. Advances in technology have led to a call for teachers capable of developing meaningful uses for technology, but knowledge sophistication needs to be secured before quality instruction can be sustained.