- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
The ‘smart city’ is an oft-cited techno-urban imaginary promoted by businesses and governments alike. It thinks big, and is chiefly imagined in terms of large-scale information communications systems that hinge on the collection of real-time and so-called ‘big data’. Less talked about are the human-scale implications and userexperience of the smart city. Much of the current academic scholarship on smart cities offers synoptic and technical perspectives, leaving the users of smart systems curiously unaccounted for. While they purport to empower citizens, smart cities initiatives are rarely focused at the citizen-scale, nor do they necessarily attend to the ways initiatives can be user-led or co-designed. Drawing on the outcomes of a university studio, this article rethinks the smart city as a series of urban scales—metropolis, community, individual, and personal—and proposes an analytical model for classifying smart city initiatives in terms of engagement. Informed by the theory of proxemics, the model proposed analyses smart city initiatives in terms of the scope of their features and audience size; the actors accountable for their deployment and maintenance; their spatial reach; and the ability of design solutions to re-shape and adapt to different urban scenarios and precincts. We argue that the significance of this model lies in its potential to facilitate modes of thinking across and between scales in ways that can gauge the levels of involvement in the design of digitally mediated urban environments, and productively re-situate citizens as central to the design of smart city initiatives.
The smart city needs to be understood in differentiated ways, and based on more than ICTs alone. Goodspeed (2015) argues for an understanding of the smart city as a “sociotechnical theory of action” (p.3). Elsewhere, scholars have argued a city's ‘smartness’ should be determined by the degree to which it fosters the capacities for learning and innovation. Finally, Hollands (2008) argues that if cities and local governments really want to be considered ‘smart’ that conventional structures of power and decision-making about the built environment needs to be disrupted, and moreover, that they need to take risks, and invest in, emerging technologies. These views implore us to understand city's relationship with ICTs more in relation to interaction, engagement, and practices, and that databases, sensors, and networks become embedded within broader organisational and social contexts in ways that can affect significant change. Yet, design ideas about how to enable and implement this shift in smart thinking and strategisation have, to date, received far less attention.
The Ubiquitous Cities design studio, that is contextualized here in relation to a proxemics-based model for the user-centered design of smart city initiatives, is argued to contribute an alternate approach to smart city thinking by addressing—through design practice—the key question of what kinds of urban experiences smart initiatives can offer? This has involved an approach to designing with, as well as through data, at various scales of design thinking, and in ways that always centralise people and their experience of place. More specifically, this relates to complementing the analysis of material-physical data (measurable or quantifiable features of place and people) with qualitative data from social media sentiment analysis. Equally, this concerns various types of real-time data that can be captured by urban interaction design projects that integrate responsive sensing and actuating technologies in ways that reveal and draw focus to the inherently dynamic nature of the built environment. And by extension, and given their sensor-driven nature, this relates to the capacity for these projects to—in the longer term—aggregate site-specific, yet a-personal data, to feed back into both large-scale smart thinking and smaller-scale examinations of the on-going use and experience of specific places.