- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
In this article, we summarize the 5G mobile communication requirements and challenges. First, essential requirements for 5G are pointed out, including higher traffic volume, indoor or hotspot traffic, and spectrum, energy, and cost efficiency. Along with these changes of requirements, we present a potential step change for the evolution toward 5G, which shows that macro-local coexisting and coordinating paths will replace one macro-dominated path as in 4G and before. We hereafter discuss emerging technologies for 5G within international mobile telecommunications. Challenges and directions in hardware, including integrated circuits and passive components, are also discussed. Finally, a whole picture for the evolution to 5G is predicted and presented.