- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Purpose – This study aims to provide new insights into religious expatriates’ cultural intelligence, adaptation and the role of motivation. Drawing mainly from the theory of intelligence (Sternberg, 1999) and theory of self-determination (Deci and Ryan, 2000; 1991), the study posits that cultural intelligence of a religious expatriate is positively and significantly related to his or her psychological and sociocultural adaptation. Moreover, the study hypothesizes that intrinsic motivation, as a type of motivation, plays a significant role in moderating the relationship between cultural intelligence and adaptation (both psychological and sociocultural). Design/methodology/approach – One hundred ten (n=110) religious expatriates from various religious communities were surveyed. They were asked to rate their cultural intelligence, intrinsic motivation and adaptation (i.e., psychological and sociocultural). Findings – The results demonstrate that cultural intelligence is positively and significantly related to both psychological and sociocultural adaptation. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation, as a type of motivation, moderates the relationship between cultural intelligence and adaptation (both psychological and sociocultural). Originality/value – The study contributes to the limited studies on non-corporate expatriation focusing mainly on religious expatriation. In addition, it adds value by generating new insights into the importance not only of cultural intelligence but also of intrinsic motivation in ensuring high levels of psychological and sociocultural adaptation. It further offers a number of practical insights that can be relevant for both corporate and noncorporate expatriates.
This study provides insights relevant in advancing the expatriate literature. First, this study build on previous studies (e.g., Oberholster and Doss, 2017; Oberholster et al., 2013; Navara and James, 2002) that go beyond corporate expatriation by specifically examining religious expatriation. Religious expatriation is characterized by movement to another country on a temporary basis which is fundamentally motivated by the commitment of religious communities to evangelize and spread their mission to other countries (Oberholster and Doss, 2017; Oberholster et al., 2013). Religious expatriation has been prevalent for many years, however, more research is needed to uncover these unique expatriates’ experiences and the personal characteristics of individuals engaging in expatriation in this sector. The study contributes to the literature by exposing the individual-level attributes of religious expatriates and how such attributes can lead to psychological and sociocultural adaptation.
Second, this study further contributes to the literature by demonstrating that individual-level capabilities such as cultural intelligence are important for psychological and sociocultural adaptation among religious expatriates. However, aside from intercultural skills, intrinsic motivation is found to be equally important. Specifically, cultural intelligence interacts with intrinsic motivation in bringing about high levels of psychological and sociocultural adaptation among religious expatriates, offering new insights that, while the development of intercultural skills is important among religious expatriates, their level of intrinsic motivation also matters in relation to their adaptation to a new cultural environment. This can inform corporate entities as well as other forms of organizations (i.e., not-for-profit) that they should not only focus on the development of intercultural skills (i.e., cultural intelligence) but should also leverage the instrinsic motivation of their expatriates.
Lastly, this study offers practical insights that can assist corporate entities and other types of organizations in ensuring that their expatriates can adapt both psychologically and socioculturally in their new cultural environments. Training programs, which have been demonstrated in the literature to be relevant for expatriates’ adjustment (e.g., Mendenhall and Stahl, 2000; Bennett, Aston and Colquhoun, 2000), should be comprehensive and cover all aspects of cultural intelligence development. In other words, training programs should not be limited to only equipping expatriates with cultural knowledge (i.e, knowledge of cultural norms, practices and traditions), but also how to develop the ability to adapt to these cultural norms and practices.