- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Purpose – This paper aims to debate the technology-driven transformation of customer relationship management (CRM) into social CRM, which entails a shift from a transactional and automational solution to a customer experience management philosophy, reflecting high levels of customer empowerment. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review provides a critical analysis of the concept, tenets, aims and implementation approaches of social CRM. Arguments are summarised by developing a processbased framework for implementing social CRM. Findings – By adopting a value co-creation approach that recognises the technology-fostered customer empowerment, the social CRM highlights the need to immigrate from relationship management to relationship stewardship. In this vein, social CRM implementation should support and foster dialogue facilitation and customer engagement in co-creating customer experiences. To achieve these, five approaches for implementing social CRM are proposed: collecting, analysing and interpreting customer insight; monitoring and improving the performance of CRM; developing holistic and seamless personalised customer experiences; gamifying CRM and loyalty programmes; and nurturing community relationship management. Research limitations/implications – The five approaches to social CRM implementation are identified and validated based on current industry practices, theoretical arguments and anecdotal evidence of professionals’ perceptions about their outcomes. Future research is required to collect hard evidence showing the business and customer impacts of these approaches. Practical implications – Social CRM immigrates relationship management from a transactional to a customer experience mindset that treats customers as co-creators of value and demands the tourism and hospitality firms to exploit the affordances of information and communication technologies to collect and analyse customer data for better understanding the customer; develop customer touch points that do not only aim to sell but also primarily aim to enhance the customer interactions and experiences; consider and treat the customers and the customer communities as co-creators, brand ambassadors and stewards of relations; and motivate and enable customer participation into value co-creation processes for developing customer experiences and building relationships. Originality/value – Research in social CRM is emerging, but it mainly focusses on defining its scope and identifying the functionality and adoption of social CRM technology. The paper contributes to the literature by proposing five specific approaches and a process framework for implementing social CRM. Various directions for future research are also provided.
Conclusions, practical and research implications
Technological advances and changes in consumer behaviour require the firms to transform their CRM conceptualisation and implementation by adding social dimensions and cocreation processes. This evolution of CRM is widely referred to as social CRM; however, research into this field is fragmented and anecdotal (Sheth, 2017; Küpper et al., 2015a). This paper reviewed the related literature and the few emerging industry examples for providing a better understanding and theoretical underpinning of the concept, principles and implementation of social CRM. Regarding the conceptualisation of social CRM, the social media merge with CRM is found to lead to a new CRM strategic thinking that moves away from the traditional onesided, product- or firm-centric transactional thinking and incorporates a more collaborative, customer-focussed and ecosystem approach to managing customer relationships. The collaborative activities afforded by social CRM technologies move customer relationships towards a process of engaging rather than managing people (Greenberg, 2010) for cocreating value within the customer’s ecosystem whereby all the stakeholders are viewed as value creators (Sheth, 2017; Sisko and Lipiäinen, 2015). Social CRM adopts a value cocreation approach whereby the customer and the customer communities are viewed as cocreators of value and relations. Firms need to divert from relationship management to relationship stewardship by managing customers’ ecosystem and affording value cocreation opportunities.