- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classifi cation, causes, and mitigation technologies. Civil engineering disasters are caused primarily by civil engineering defects, which are usually attributed to improper selection of construction site, hazard assessment, design and construction, occupancy, and maintenance. From this viewpoint, many so-called natural disasters such as earthquakes, strong winds, fl oods, landslides, and debris fl ows are substantially due to civil engineering defects rather than the actual natural hazards. Civil engineering disasters occur frequently and globally and are the most closely related to human beings among all disasters. This paper emphasizes that such disasters can be mitigated mainly through civil engineering measures, and outlines the related objectives and scientifi c and technological challenges.
Among the different types of disasters, civil engineering disasters are the most closely related to human beings and have constituted an important stimulus for civil engineering development. Many scientifi c and technological topics are relevant to the understanding and mitigation of civil engineering disasters, the concept of which emphasizes the transformation of civil engineering works from hazard-bearing bodies into hazards when they fail. Unlike disasters caused by natural hazards, which often cannot be predicted or controlled, civil engineering disasters can be effectively mitigated based on a thorough understanding of the associated failure mechanisms and by enhancement of the resistance capacity of engineering works. The two goals of studies on civil engineering disasters are to understand the evolution mechanisms of the failure of the civil engineering works and to mitigate the disasters to protect human communities. The former goal can only be accomplished by accurate reproduction of the failure of the engineering works, while the latter requires comprehensive enhancement of the engineering works.