- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
During the various stages of asphalt paving mixtures production and placement, as a result of binder heating, a complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is released into the atmosphere. As far as hot mix asphalt plants is concerned, several standards and directives were drawn up for limiting the emissions of certain specific substances, without setting any specific limit on the odorous perspective. But, odor is increasingly considered an atmospheric pollutant that can have a significant negative impact on both quality of life and economic activity. The odorous flows of HMA emitted in plants or during the paving operations and hot-in-place recycling processes in the worksites can severely limit the usability of the territory. Advances in sensor technology have made possible the development of artificial olfactory systems (AOS), which are devices designed to mimic the human olfactory system capable of characterizing osmogene mixtures. However, their potentialities have not been explored until now at any stages of asphalt and asphalt mixtures production chain. Thus, the main purpose of this study was an analytical-sensory characterization, mainly based on AOS approach, of asphalt emissions generated during the various stages of road pavement construction. The analytical and sensory analyses have firstly demonstrated the effective application of these instruments in the pavement engineering sector: an odor fingerprint of asphalt emissions, specific for each type of binder and temperature class, was determined. Thanks to the photoionization, a technique which allow the detection of organic compounds in gaseous mixtures, a pseudo-hyperbolic relationship between the release of airborne substances in asphalt emissions and the heating temperature was identified; whereas the AOS demonstrated that this increase of VOCs corresponded contextually to a change in their odorous patterns. Moreover, the existence of variations in the odor fingerprints of different asphalt binders heated at the same temperature was assessed. Through a specific statistical approach for the treatment and post-processing of data and the following elaboration of a geometric based procedure for the determination of the numerical inter-class separation, a quantitative value to the purely qualitative response of the AOS was assigned.
During the various stages of asphalt paving mixtures production and placement, as a result of the asphalt heating, gaseous blends characterized by an intrinsic complexity of substances and compounds are emitted into the atmosphere. The photoionization analyses confirmed as temperature represents the crucial factor in the generation of such emissions. A pseudo-hyperbolic relationship between the release of airborne substances, in the form of VOCs, and the heating temperature was identified. Specifically, a signifi- cant increase in asphalt emissions was registered for temperatures greater than 130 C, that is, those typical of production and placement of traditional HMA mixtures. Moreover, a positive correlation between the amount of VOCs in the headspaces and the content of the more volatile fractions (saturated and aromatic) in the asphalt solid matrix was revealed. Thus, the possibility to compare continually the PID readings with previously set alarm exposure levels, which are specific for each hazardous environment, makes this type of instruments a useful and interesting cost-effective solution also in the asphalt pavement industry for monitoring the potential release of pollutant compounds in some crucial phases of HMA production processes.
The sensory analyses conducted using the Cyranose® 320 have firstly allowed to demonstrate the effective application of AOS in the pavement engineering sector and in the monitoring of HMA plants and road construction sites, thanks to the far from obvious compatibility between the sensors’ operating principle and the odor of asphalt emissions. A specific and peculiar odor fingerprint was determined for each type of asphalt binder and temperature class. Through a specific statistical approach for the treatment and post-processing of data (PCA) and the following elaboration of a geometric based procedure for the determination of the numerical inter-class separation, a quantitative value to the purely qualitative response of the electronic nose was assigned.