- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Football is widely regarded as the most popular spectator and participation sport in the world. It is sometimes referred to as “soccer,” particularly in countries where an alternative sporting variant has traditionally proven more popular and/or is connected to national culture, notably in Australia, Ireland, and the United States. The prefix “association,” the term from which “soccer” is thought to have emerged, has been used to differentiate football from other sporting codes, such as rugby union and rugby league (Rookwood, 2014). Although often considered to be of English invention, there is a degree of uncertainty surrounding the origins of football, with preexisting versions thought to have been introduced in different localities and exported along trade routes and through military conquests—for instance, from countries such as China and Italy (Walvin, 2010). The various relatively violent folk antecedents of modern football that later emerged in Britain effectively died out under pressure from puritanism, industrialization, and urbanization (Hay, Harvey, & Smith, 2014). Indeed, there have been several attempts to ban “mob football” due to its violent nature and the damage caused to property: “As far back as 1314, legislations were used to control the football crowd and many bills have been vicariously used to prosecute the unruly football fan” (Clark, 2006, p. 495).
Throughout the development of the sport, football has often been connected both to violence and to the plethora of attempts to eradicate associated violent behavior. Although transnational dissimilarities complicate the process of formulating a global conceptualization of football hooliganism, this chapter has examined the nature and development of football violence in modern professional football across various countries, exploring multiple definitional and theoretical positions and the significance and impact of football hooliganism. Fan violence in football-related contexts is multifaceted with respect to cause, involvement, locality, severity, impact, and response. The phenomenon has been overstated and overresearched in some contexts, although gaps in the knowledge base remain, particularly relating to the publication of reliable (inter)national statistical evidence. Legal and police responses to football violence have been necessary, although draconian legislation and disproportionate policing responses are considered to have unnecessarily restricted the civil liberties of many football supporters, who have often been criminalized as a collective. Popularized views of football fans have often been shaped accordingly, informed by various media representations. However, violence in football remains ingrained in many sporting cultures and its prevalence in some contexts continues to pose a threat to civil societies.