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This paper reviews sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015 and approved by all countries. The inclusion of the sustainability concept based on a balanced set of economic, social, and environmental factors in the strategic documents underpinning the long-term development of Russia is justified as part of a search for a new development model for the Russian economy.
Goals and indicators of sustainable development in Russia.
To abandon a commodity export-based model and switch to a new development paradigm of the Russian economy, it is necessary to include the concept of sustainability based on a balanced set of economic, social and environmental factors in the strategic documents that underpin the country’s long-term development. At least two strategic documents must be put in place in any form or modification, i.e., Strategy for Sustainable Development of Russia and the country’s Sustainable Development Goals through 2030. Other countries in the world must also develop these documents, the former of which is in line with the UN resolutions as of 2002, while the latter is based on the UN resolutions as of 2015.
We believe it is relevant to start with the definition of the sustainable development goals for Russia. Any strategy, concept, or program involves a set of clearly identified goals and objectives reflected in quantitative targets, which enables monitoring and management of the progress towards these goals in the medium and long run. In this context, the experience of adapting UN SDGs can be used for Russia.
Based on the Russian official statistics, basic sustainable development indicators that reflect the economic, social, and environmental aspects of sustainability can be identified for Russia (Table 5). Only 14 such indicators have been selected. However, this list can be significantly expanded and adapted to the medium and long-term goals and objectives, as well as adjusted to the forward-looking nature of the document. In this case, the choice of methodology is important. Indicators are tied to the goals. A specific indicator can correspond to several goals depending on the focus of the goals (second column of Table 5). For example, energy efficiency can be an important indicator to ensure access to sustainable energy (SDG 7), promote economic growth (SDG 8), support sustainable consumption and production patterns (SDG 12), and combat climate change (SDG 13).