- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Learned song is among the best-studied models of animal communication. In oscine songbirds, where learned song is most prevalent, it is used primarily for intrasexual selection and mate attraction. Learning of a different class of vocal signals, known as contact calls, is found in a diverse array of species, where they are used to mediate social interactions among individuals. We argue that call learning provides a taxonomically rich system for studying testable hypotheses for the evolutionary origins of vocal learning. We describe and critically evaluate four nonmutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin and current function of vocal learning of calls, which propose that call learning (1) improves auditory detection and recognition, (2) signals local knowledge, (3) signals group membership, or (4) allows for the encoding of more complex social information. We propose approaches to testing these four hypotheses but emphasize that all of them share the idea that social living, not sexual selection, is a central driver of vocal learning. Finally, we identify future areas for research on call learning that could provide new perspectives on the origins and mechanisms of vocal learning in both animals and humans.
Consideration of the past and current selection pressures driving vocal learning informs our understanding of the social factors important for the development of species-typical communication and the qualities of learned vocalizations that are important for effective communication. Call learning is particularly widespread in animals, is associated with social complexity, and occurs in individuals of all ages and sexes. For these reasons we suggest that a focus on the function and mechanisms of call learning across the broad range of taxa may provide important insights into the evolution of vocal learning, and even of human language. Future studies investigating the origins of vocal learning should focus on testing alternatives to sexual selection through comparative approaches, modelling and focused experiments that assess the costs and benefits of learned calls in dynamic social systems.