- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
ABSTRACT In the face of diminished federal and state transportation funding, cities continue to look for creative local funding mechanisms to pay for and implement their multi-modal goals. To understand the types of local funding being used, this study analyzes case study cities across the U.S. to identify best practices, documenting the most widely used methods of funding. We find that county sales tax measures are most common but that additional popular approaches are bond issues, general fund allocations, and transportation impact fees, especially for larger cities. More-so, all of the cities evaluated have both bicycle and pedestrian masterplans to guide infrastructure investments and most pursue more than one local funding source to fund projects. This provides important lessons to communities that desire to improve the local bicycle and pedestrian amenities the best practice to move from policy to action.
The analysis of the 12 case study cities across the United States revealed that cities are sharing common infrastructure needs and funding shortfalls. While the case study analysis did not find a common funding factor across all 12 cities, voter approved measures such as county sales tax measures and bond issues are the most heavily relied upon approaches to local source funding bicycle and pedestrian capital project implementation. Put succinctly, the cases reveal that for cities between 50,000 and 100,000 sales tax measures and developer agreements and user taxes are very important while for larger cities there is a more diverse portfolio of funding strategies. Cities between 100,000 and 300,000 tend to rely on general fund and transport impact fees, while large cities (>300 K) tend to focus on bond issues, likely as a result of their greater bonding capacity.