- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Freud began his professional career as an academic physician whose career path was blocked because he was Jewish.5 Private practice was the way he could make a living—and he soon became a successful practitioner. This accident of fate seems to have wed organized psychoanalysis as it subsequently evolved to a private practice paradigm, rather than an experimentally based, empirical frame of reference. As academic psychiatry grew along an empirically validated path, psychoanalytic psychology gradually but somewhat disdainfully moved away from traditional academic research. This movement was not only because so many of the psychoanalytic patients were neurotic, unlike the predominately psychotic population treated by psychiatrists in the past. The movement also took place because of insistence by many psychoanalysts that consciousness was merely a layer of the mind that happened to be immediately accessible. Under conscious awareness, unconscious motives lurked, and these unconscious fears and desires were often different in their ultimate meanings than conscious recall indicated. For example, a person who allegedly loved another might unconsciously hate her. Given this ambiguity of meaning, it was difficult to assess the motivational significance of consciously experienced psychic material or its role in symptom formation. Much academic psychology, however, was based on quantification of consciously accessible thoughts, feelings, and memories. This information notwithstanding, it ultimately became necessary for psychiatrists to demonstrate that they could make diagnoses in a valid and reliable manner. Their poor capacity to do this contributed to the diminished influence of psychoanalysis in psychiatry.