- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Immunity encompasses all mechanisms and responses used by the organismto defend itself against bacteria, viruses or parasites. Adequate supply and balance of nutrients are required for proper e⁄ciency of the host defences. Research has identi¢ed dietary factors that a¡ect human and animal immune responses like amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins. Some of these nutrients have been proven to have speci¢c actions on immunity when provided at pharmacological doses. This paper will review these nutrients and their current use in aquaculture. The immune system is an e⁄cient but complex system. Its complexity has made the assessment of the e¡ects of diets di⁄cult. Nevertheless, the standardization of methodology as well as the use of new techniques at the cell or the gene level should help to better understand the mechanisms of immune modulation. This paper will review themajor functions of ¢sh and shrimp immune system and the methodologies used. Cellular and humoral functions including cytokines will be discussed in relation to potential means to modulate them and the underlying mechanism. A better understanding of the mechanisms of modulation of the immune functions should help in the discovery of new dietary factors to improve the immune status of the animal, leading to better disease resistance.