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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure and evaluate the performance efficiency of 44 Indian commercial banks, out of which 26 banks belong to the public sector, and 18 banks are from the private sector for the period of 2008-2013. Design/methodology/approach – The two-stage network data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach (i.e. variable return to scale and constant return to scale) is used for the measurement of performance in the Indian banking sector. To verify the robustness of the proposed study, sensitivity analysis is also performed. Findings – A comparative study between public sector banks (PSBs) and private sector banks (PVBs) showed that latter being more productive compared to the former. The investigation highlighted that two banks are most efficient among the PSBs, and eight banks from PVBs are found to be most effective. On the other side, the performance of State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur and Lakshmi Vilas Bank is discovered to be less significant from PSB and PVB category, respectively. Research limitations/implications – This study will guide the Indian banks to improve upon the factors in which they are lagging, for the improvement of their overall performance. The quality category parameters, i.e. quality of service, quality of equipment, are not considered due to unavailability of information in the output measures, and the methodology used for the study does not identify the causes or remedies for the inefficiency of the banks. Originality/value – The developed DEA model would help the decision maker to take decisions on the issues related to the performance of the banks. This paper discusses very practical issues in an analytic manner.
7. Conclusion and limitations of the study
In the past, the banking sector’s performance measurement has been carried out by many researchers using DEA in many countries. It may be noted that the present study cannot be compared with the global research as each country has its regulations, parameters, and the result vary significantly from place to place. It may be noted that in India, very few research activities (Saha and Ravisankar, 2000; Ray, 2016; Bhattacharyya et al., 1997; Mukherjee et al., 2002; Das and Ghosh, 2009; Tabak and Tecles, 2010; Sathye, 2003) related to performance measurement of the banking industry have been carried out in the past. As of today, these eight studies are of less significance as the first two research activities were carried out in the PSBs domain and, later ,six were studied during the period when the PSBs were dominating, and the PVBs were in the emerging phase and were trying to mark their presence.
Kaur and Gupta (2015) did not consider the number of offices, the number of employees in the inputs which are very important in evaluating the performance of banks. In outputs, the returns on equity and return on assets have not been considered. The consideration of all these factors may influence the results of the model, as they are having considerable weight, and are found significant in the present research work. It may be noted that the past research results mentioned so far in this section are contradictory to the findings of the present study, which highlighted that the private sectors banks are more efficient than the banks of the public sector in India. The present investigation results are very much in parallel with the findings of Kumbhakar and Sarkar (2003), Denizer (1999), and Sanyal and Shankar (2011).