- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Heart failure (HF) in the adult with congenital heart disease (ACHD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality and has been implicated as the leading cause of death in this patient population. The diagnosis of HF in ACHD involves a combination of clinical suspicion from subjective patient history, anatomic imaging, functional diagnostic studies, and rhythm evaluation. Once diagnosed, the approach to management of HF in this population varies widely and by lesion. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature available delineating the optimal management of these patients, making clinical decisionmaking extremely challenging. In this review, we aim to summarize available evidence to help guide the diagnosis and management of HF in ACHD.
The ACHD population continues to age, uncovering the natural (and unnatural) history of palliated ACHD. HF is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in ACHD, but comprehensive guidelines on the management of HF in these patients have not yet been established. Caution should be taken when applying the adult HF guidelines to ACHD patients, since extensive data do not yet exist to verify the benefit of proven strategies to treat HF in these complex ACHD patients. Nonetheless, we should hope that evidence continues to grow and support new medical and surgical options in the diagnosis and management of HF in ACHD.