- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Research has identified a large number of strategies that people use to self-enhance or self-protect. We aimed for an empirical integration of these strategies. Two studies used self-report items to assess all commonly recognized self-enhancement or self-protection strategies. In Study 1 (N 5 345), exploratory factor analysis identified 4 reliable factors. In Study 2 (N 5 416), this model was validated using confirmatory factor analysis. The factors related differentially to the key personality variables of regulatory focus, self-esteem, and narcissism. Expanding this integrative approach in the future can reveal a great deal about the structure and dynamics of self-enhancement and self-protection motivation.
People are motivated to possess a positive self-concept. They often go to great lengths to attain positive views of the self (self-enhance) and avoid negative views of the self (self-protect; Alicke & Govorun, 2005; Baumeister, 1998; Sedikides, Green, & Pinter, 2004). Researchers have documented many varied manifestations, or strategies, that people use to self-enhance and self-protect (Greenwald, 1980; Sedikides, Skowronski, & Gaertner, 2004; Tesser, Crepaz, Collins, Cornell, & Beach, 2000). However, research has focused on studying the strategies separately. Thus, a more integrative approach is now needed. This article constitutes a first empirical attempt to examine, systematically and holistically, the strategies that people use to enhance and protect a positive self-concept.