- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Oil and gas exploration and production in deepwater is associated with the use of highly sophisticated equipment and increasing innovative technology. However, the failure of this equipment can cause serious consequences, including material loss and environmental pollution. Critical accidents can even cause the loss of human lives. Based on a literature review, this paper aims to identify past typical failures experienced in the industry concerning pipelines, risers, and umbilicals, detailing the causes, consequences, and severity of these failures. Pipelines are the safest method to export liquid and gaseous petroleum products or chemicals (Roche, 2007). However, like any engineering structure, pipelines do occasionally fail. The main failure modes experienced by pipelines during production are identified as mechanical damage (impact or accidental damage), external and/or internal corrosion, construction defect, material or mechanical failure, natural hazards and fatigue.