- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
This paper argues thatIntergovernmental Organisations (IGOs) can play a significant role in the processes of system transformation required by Grand Challenges. The reason is their potential to influence sociotechnical regimes connected to policy areas in which they have authority. Supported by mandates, moral standing andtechnical expertise,IGOs actintwo ways: operating withhighlevel ofpolitical support,these organisations guide priority setting and norm development through the definition of collective problems and solutions, including STI aspects, establishing a shared vision;involving public and private actors, IGOs implement and protect novel practices that reinforce the new norms, from legally binding agreements to the creation of new spaces for international collaboration. These processes are examined here in the field of global health, where outside pressure directed atthe intellectual property rules in connection to access to medicines prompted the WHO to define the health challenge as a need to stimulate innovation and ensure wide access to technology at the same time. Two of the solutions implemented by IGOs to achieve both goals are analysed: the Medicines Patent Pool, designed by UNITAID to fulfil access and innovation needs in relation to HIV/AIDS drugs, and WIPO Re:Search, set up by WIPO to support collaboration and accelerate discovery and product developmentfor Neglected Tropical Diseases, Malaria and Tuberculosis.
This paper argues that IGOs can contribute to the system transformations required by Grand Challenges by creating norms that influence socio-technical regimes connected to these problems. The rules and practices they establish have the potentialto question aspects of socio-technical regimes linked to Grand Challenges, creating tensions and misalignments able to trigger the reorientation that precede system transformation (Geels and Schot, 2007)