تلفن: ۰۴۱۴۲۲۷۳۷۸۱
تلفن: ۰۹۲۱۶۴۲۶۳۸۴

دانلود رایگان مقاله ایجاد هنجارها برای مقابله با چالش های جهانی: نقش سازمان های بین دولتی

عنوان فارسی: ایجاد هنجارها برای مقابله با چالش های جهانی: نقش سازمان های بین دولتی
عنوان انگلیسی: Making norms to tackle global challenges: The role of Intergovernmental Organisations
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی : 11 تعداد صفحات ترجمه فارسی : ترجمه نشده
سال انتشار : 2016 نشریه : الزویر - Elsevier
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی : PDF کد محصول : E4908
محتوای فایل : PDF حجم فایل : Kb500
رشته های مرتبط با این مقاله: علوم سیاسی و علوم اجتماعی
مجله: سیاست تحقیق - Research Policy
دانشگاه: دانشکده کسب و کار آدام اسمیت، دانشگاه گلاسگو، انگلستان
کلمات کلیدی: نوآوری، چالش های بزرگ، سازمان های بین دولتی، بهداشت جهانی
برای سفارش ترجمه این مقاله با کیفیت عالی و در کوتاه ترین زمان ممکن توسط مترجمین مجرب سایت ایران عرضه؛ روی دکمه سبز رنگ کلیک نمایید.
چکیده

abstract

This paper argues thatIntergovernmental Organisations (IGOs) can play a significant role in the processes of system transformation required by Grand Challenges. The reason is their potential to influence sociotechnical regimes connected to policy areas in which they have authority. Supported by mandates, moral standing andtechnical expertise,IGOs actintwo ways: operating withhighlevel ofpolitical support,these organisations guide priority setting and norm development through the definition of collective problems and solutions, including STI aspects, establishing a shared vision;involving public and private actors, IGOs implement and protect novel practices that reinforce the new norms, from legally binding agreements to the creation of new spaces for international collaboration. These processes are examined here in the field of global health, where outside pressure directed atthe intellectual property rules in connection to access to medicines prompted the WHO to define the health challenge as a need to stimulate innovation and ensure wide access to technology at the same time. Two of the solutions implemented by IGOs to achieve both goals are analysed: the Medicines Patent Pool, designed by UNITAID to fulfil access and innovation needs in relation to HIV/AIDS drugs, and WIPO Re:Search, set up by WIPO to support collaboration and accelerate discovery and product developmentfor Neglected Tropical Diseases, Malaria and Tuberculosis.

نتیجه گیری

6. Conclusions

This paper argues that IGOs can contribute to the system transformations required by Grand Challenges by creating norms that influence socio-technical regimes connected to these problems. The rules and practices they establish have the potentialto question aspects of socio-technical regimes linked to Grand Challenges, creating tensions and misalignments able to trigger the reorientation that precede system transformation (Geels and Schot, 2007)