- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
An energy efficient adder design based on a hybrid carry computation is proposed. Addition takes place by considering the carry as propagating forwards from the LSB and backwards from the MSB. The incidence at a midpoint significantly accelerates the addition. This acceleration together with combining low-cost ripple-carry and carry-chain circuits, yields energy efficiency compared to other adder architectures. The optimal midpoint is analytically formulated and its closed-form expression is derived. To avoid the quadratic RC delay growth in a long carry chain, it is optimally repeated. The adder is enhanced in a tree-like structure for further acceleration. 32, 64 and 128-bit adders targeting 500 MHz and 1 GHz clock frequencies were designed in 65 nm technology. They consumed 11–18% less energy compared to adders generated by state-of-the-art EDA synthesis tool.