- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
In 1987 the PMS process was generally being developed individually and in-house by state DOTs. All US states and Canadian provinces reported having some type of PMS in place. It has been estimated that of the 90% of these developed in-house, 60% were largely unused and 30% gave only simplistic answers based on condition. This growth of apparent PMS was spurred largely by the US FHWA mandate for pavement management (known as ISTEA) but lacked the guidance and available personnel and resources to truly succeed. Thus good systems were not always developed. Only in the order of 10% of the systems— including Arizona, Kansas, Washington, Minnesota, Alberta, Ontario, and a few others—were successful and used effectively.