- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Sulphur mustard (SM) is a powerful blister-causing alkylating chemical warfare agent used by Iraqi forces against Iran. One of the known complications of mustard gas inhalation is mustard lung which is discussed as a phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this complication, there are clinical symptoms close to COPD with common etiologies, such as in smokers. Based on information gradually obtained by conducting the studies on mustard lung patients, systemic symptoms along with pulmonary disorders have attracted the attention of researchers. Changes in serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), interleukin (IL), chemokines, selectins, immunoglobulins, and signs of imbalance in oxidant-antioxidant system at serum level, present the systemic changes in these patients. In addition to these, reports of extra-pulmonary complications, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are also presented. In this study, the chance of developing the systemic nature of this lung disease have been followed on using the comparative study of changes in the mentioned markers in mustard lung and COPD patients at stable phases and the mechanisms of pathogenesis and phenomena, such as airway remodeling in these patients.
The sulphur mustard (SM) or mustard gas is a strong alkylating and vesicant chemical warfare agent that has been deployed by Iraqi troops against Iran (Evison et al., 2002; Paromov et al., 2007; Moin et al., 2009). The former toxicity with this vesicant agent has caused serious disability in more than 34 000 Iranian veterans whose various organs have been affected by this agent (Khateri et al., 2003). The toxicity with SM is followed by short-term and long-term side effects in different tissues (Heidari et al., 2016; Rahmani et al., 2016; Sheikhi & Rahmani, 2016). The humid tissues, such as eye and respiratory system, can be further affected by SM (Ghasemi et al., 2008; Pourfarzam et al., 2009a) and several side effects are involved. Previous studies showed that the respiratory deficiencies are the most prevalent long-term disorders among persons poisoned with SM (Khateri et al., 2003; Pourfarzam et al., 2009a).
The presented study was carried out to explore the systemic expressions in chemically-injured and pulmonary veterans exposed to mustard gas with inhaling toxicity by single dosage of mustard gas for several years and their comparison with systemic manifestation in COPD patients. As implied in the introduction and other sections of this article, the main objective was systemic variations in stable-phase in these patients where these goals caused many studies to be excluded from the range of this paper since many studies relating to systemic factors have been examined in exacerbate-phase and studies that dealt with these patients at stable-phase play a lesser role among the published articles. Similarly, variations of inflammatory factors have been explored at serum level in this essay, while most of the studies have reviewed these factors and explored the level of these variables in pulmonary fluid.