- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Strategic planning is an important instrument for university management. This article’s objective is to reveal differences in strategic planning among universities at different levels and of different types. The article is based on the Chinese Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) Strategic Planning Survey. The study attempts to understand awareness of strategic planning, the types of strategic plans, the coverage of plan text, the main influential groups in planning and the approach to assess such planning among Chinese HEIs. A comparative analysis was performed on the basis of the differentiations of HEIs through two dimensions. There are four main findings. First, the surveyed HEIs attach great importance to a five-year plan; however, there are differences in terms of formulating a specialized plan and a medium- and longterm plan. Second, the HEIs at the higher level are more ambitious in their respective missions. Third, the university leaders, leading professors, heads of schools, and heads of university offices are the major influencers in all HEIs. Vocational colleges and private HEIs focus more on the roles of students, alumnus, and external specialists. Fourth, vocational colleges and private HEIs appear to be more action-oriented compared with HEIs at other levels and of other types. This study found that private HEIs had certain unique characteristics in strategic planning. The study concluded that a highly stratified higher education has resulted in China due to the push of Project 98/5 and Project 21/1.
On the basis of the 2013 survey on strategic planning, this article has performed a comparative analysis based on the differentiation of Chinese higher education. The data indicates that most surveyed HEIs have a positive awareness of strategic planning and use it as a suitable tool to attract resources and integrate resources. There were certain differences in the formulation, mission, text, and assessment of strategic plans among HEIs at different levels and of different types. Those differences moderately reflect the diversified needs of different HEIs.
This article has revealed that the hierarchical stratification approach is very clear among Chinese HEIs. A highly stratified higher education system has been formed under the push from Project 21/1 and Project 98/5. The higher the level of the institution is, the more ambitious is its strategic planning. As the key universities supported by the government, 21/1 universities and national HEIs have high expectations and focus much effort on all types of strategic plans. In comparison, vocational colleges and private HEIs focus more on the roles of students, alumni, and external specialists. Private universities have certain unique characteristics in strategic planning; they are more marketoriented and action-oriented. Non-21/1 universities and provincial HEIs are non-distinct in most indicators, often average or lower.
This study shows that the strategic planning of HEIs is correlated with the current higher education situation in China. This study reveals the features of Chinese higher education at a particular stage and presents the uneven competitive environment faced by Chinese HEIs at different levels and of different types.
Distinctive from previous studies that mainly focus on strategic planning itself, this article sheds some new insights on investigating strategic planning from the differentiation of Chinese higher education institutions. It depicts the current practices of Chinese HEIs in strategic planning, provides in depth analysis on the differences of strategic planning of institutions at different levels and of different types, and more importantly, reveals the implications of these differences. It presents new evidences for the stratification of Chinese higher education from the perspective of strategic planning. The discussions are based on new data from the first nationwide strategic planning survey carried out by the research team themselves. This article will contribute to the understanding of the strategic planning of Chinese HEIs and the stratification of Chinese higher education.