- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
We measure the loss in viewership over the course of National Football League games to identify engagement of out-of-market viewers throughout the contest, and how this is moderated by the presence of a rival team in the game. Our analysis reveals that out-ofmarket viewers are more likely to stay tuned throughout a game when their local team’s rival is ultimately the game winner. This brings about important considerations in the context of measuring the effect of rivalry on demand. Our results point toward future research within the context of in-group bias and mitfreude behaviors in rivalrous relationships such that viewership depends not only on home team and in-group competitiveness, but also highlights preferences such as out-group competitiveness, or lack thereof. We therefore suggest an amendment to the Neale and Rottenberg frameworks to include how rivalry induces competitive complementarity.
4. Results and discussion
4.1. Summary statistics and control variables Summary statistics of all variables included in both model estimations can be found in Table 1. To summarize, the average RatingsDrop in our data is 16.9%, with a maximum of 90.9%. The majority of games occur on Sundays, 68.9%, with Monday (18.6%) and Thursday (10.0%) following as the more common game days. Games are mostly evenly split across ESPN, FOX, CBS, and NBC – all between 18 and 29 percent of games – while the NFL Network airs fewer games than the other networks. The average combined age of teams competing in the games is about 100 years, and the average score margin is about 12.5 points. Just over 11% of our data feature at least one team in the division of the viewing market, and about 60% of these result in wins for the divisional team.