- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Meeting the challenge of feeding a growing population with limited resources will require increasing the yield potential of staple crops, such as rice. Yet many high-yielding, intensive production systems have experienced slow rates of yield improvement in recent years despite a demonstrated increase in the yield potential of new crop cultivars. We analyzed experimental data from one such cropping system, i.e., California (CA) rice, in order to quantify improvements made in the genetic yield potential obtained through plant breeding. California rice systems are among the highest in the world and close to maximum yield potential. Specifically, the hypothesis was tested that if rice cultivar yields decline over time then apparent yield increases in side-by-side yield comparison tests will not reflect increases in yield potential. This hypothesis was tested using 33 years of experimental yield data from the California Cooperative Rice Research Foundation Rice Experiment Station. Based on side-by-side comparisons of old and new rice cultivars which do not consider yield decline over time, there was an apparent increase in yield. However, the yields of older cultivars were found to decline at an estimated rate of 29.3 kg ha−1 year−1 (90% credible interval −4.4 to −53.3) after initial selection. Once this effect was considered, the yield advantage of newer cultivars over old was uncertain (−3.3 kg ha−1 year−1 , 90% credible interval −36.1 to 31.5). These results highlight (1) the importance of continuous crop improvement and deployment of new cultivars simply to maintain existing yields, and (2) to increase the genetic yield potential, higher yield targets are needed. Importantly, when breeding near the yield potential, despite the limited yield gains, significant advances in improving quality and reducing crop duration have been made.
Increasing grain yield is essential to meeting the challenges of feeding a growing population in a changing world. Here we show that side-by-side cultivar comparisons do not necessarily indicate gains in yield potential as they do not account for yield declines over time of the older cultivars being tested. Here we show, as have others, that the yield of a cultivar declines over time. Therefore, quantifying changes in yield potential requires comparing yields of new cultivar yields to yields of the older cultivars when they were first released. Unfortunately, our analysis did not allow us to identify the cause of yield declines in this case. While efforts should be made to identify the cause of yield decline over time, this study highlights both the need for plant breeding to simply maintain current yields, and the challenge of increasing genetic yield potential, especially in systems such as CA where yield is approaching the physiological limit. The goal of increasing yield may require the yield performance of cultivars to be assessed earlier in the selection process to avoid discarding higher yielding entries without full consideration. We suggest here that historical benchmarks be used in to evaluate promising rice cultivars in addition to side-by-side comparisons to maintain perspective of the absolute yield gains being made.