- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
AS MODERN CMOS technology downscales, the reduction of supply voltage in CMOS integrated circuits has led to smaller common-mode input range for traditional operational amplifiers (OpAmp) with a single input differential pair and a reduced signal-to-noise ratio. The rail-to-rail ampli- fiers, with parallel-connected complementary p-channel and n-channel differential pairs in the input stage, are used to solve this problem by extending the common-mode input range from the negative supply rail to the positive supply rail. However, there are two limitations to the design and application of the rail-to-rail amplifiers. The first is that when the common-mode input voltage is in the middle of the positive and negative supply rails, the transconductance (gmT ) is double that when only one pair is operating near the positive (negative) rail.