- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Since the early 1990s, globalization and the consolidation of the new knowledge-intensive organizational paradigms have been redefning competition processes while highlighting the non-price factors of competitiveness, such as quality, sales, design, and service. Moreover, with the advent and widespread adoption of microelectronics and cybernetics, products have become easy to access and even easier to replicate, which eventually jeopardizes the frst mover advantage of companies that once believed in the sustainability of competitive advantage (D’aveni et al. 2010). Tis scenario is also characterized by a greater segmentation of demand and by the increasing volatility of markets, in which uncertainty hampers strategic decision making. In such a rapidly changing environment, frms aficted by organizational inertia seem doomed to failure. So how can companies outperform their rivals while dodging any potential threat regardless of the nature of their business environment, whether hostile or benign? Te answer is not straightforward. Company performance depends on the interaction of the organizations that infuence the creation and delivery of value. Complexity increases because organizations are not islands and are afected by both competitive dynamics (attacks and counterattacks) and a need to exist symbiotically with their business ecosystems (Lansiti and Levien 2004).