- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Effective science-based conservation priorities and policies are crucially important to effectively maintain biodiversity into the future. For many threatened species and systems insufficient information exists to generate priorities, or the mechanisms needed to effectively conserve species into the future, and this is especially important in megadiversity countries like the Philippines, threatened by rapid rates of development and with few overarching strategies to maintain their biodiversity. Here, using a bibliographic approach to indicate research strengths and priorities, we summarised scientific information on Philippine bats from 2000- 2017. We examine relationships between thematic areas and effort allocated for each species bat guild, and conservation status. We found that an average of 7.9 studies was published annually with the majority focused on diversity and community surveys. However, research effort is not even between taxonomic groups, thematic areas or species, with disproportionate effort focusing on ‘taxonomy and systematics’ and ‘ecology’. Species effort allocation between threatened and less threatened species does not show a significant difference, though this may be because generalist species are found in many studies, whereas rarer species have single species studies devoted to them. A growing collaborative effort in bat conservation initiatives in the Philippines has focused on the protection of many endemic and threatened species (e.g., flying foxes) and their habitats. The implementation of conservation relevant policies, outreach programs, capacity building, and mainstreaming of evidence-based conservation are encouraged to strengthen bat conservation in the Philippines.
Our review revealed that more than 50% of the bat studies are focused on ‘diversity’ and at least half Philippine bat species are understudied based on effort allocation measures suggesting that knowledge gap in Philippine bat research across batspecies, groups, geographic focus including target habitats are evident. The development of national-level research priorities led by countries’ bat biologists and conservationists could be developed to target knowledge gaps in bat research and conservation, which are adaptable and achievable in a reasonable time (Gardenfor, 2001; Brito et al., 2010; Juslen et al., 2013). At a regional scale (Southeast Asia) priorities have been developed for bat research and conservation (see Kingston 2010) and downscaling these priorities to practicable regional priorities may be ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 14 essential for effective regional protection. Developing regional-scale conservation priorities is essential to efficiently achieve large-scale conservation (e.g., continental-, global-scale conservation), however, a successful regional priority relies on the effective national or local implementation of the conservation management process (Kark et al. 2009; Rudd et al., 2011; Mazor et al., 2013; Beger et al., 2015).
Although research effort is well-proportioned among species in terms conservation status and endemism, a National Red list for Philippine bats (i.e., following the approach of Keller and Bollmann, 2004) is integral to the conservation management of bat species and its habitats and will redefine conservation priorities on a national scale. The global Red List, which is mainly the basis of conservation prioritisation in Philippine bats, although has been designed to indicate the risk of extinction of a species or subspecies on a global scale (IUCN 2001; Rodrigues et al., 2006) and it essentially reflects the extinction risk within the national level it inadequately set conservation priorities because the national populations including its associated threats as a whole is often missed into considerations (Keller and Bollmann, 2004). For example less threatened species are greatly impacted by direct human threats and activities in local or national scale i.e., common species Rousettus amplexicaudatus are harvested in hundreds to thousands in caves despite this species is common and has wide range of distribution, but continuous hunting overtime may result in the ‘Passenger pigeon’s fiasco’, where a common and abundant species went extinct thus conservation-oriented project should also not only target threatened species.