- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
This study utilized eye-tracking technology to explore the differences between high- and low-conceptual-comprehension players' visual behaviors and game flows in game-based learning (GBL). A total of 22 university students participated in this study and their eye movements while playing a physics game were recorded by an eye tracker. Along with eye-tracking measures, the participants' prior knowledge, flow and comprehension test scores were collected. Multiple data analysis methods including MWU tests, correlation analyses, heat map analyses and lag sequential analyses were employed in this study. The results indicated that the players in the high comprehension group demonstrated an efficient text-reading strategy and better metacognitive controls of visual attention during game plays; while those in the low comprehension group could have some difficulties in decoding the conceptual representations. In addition, the players with higher comprehension expressed a higher level of game flow in two aspects: the sense of control and concentration. Furthermore, the percentages of fixation for the main task and prompt messages were associated with the players' game flow experience, especially the time distortion feeling. This study successfully applied eye-tracking technology to find learners’ visual behavioral patterns in GBL environment and confirmed the flow construct for GBL, which may provide some insights for the learning mechanism of GBL. Future studies have been suggested in this paper.
In order to explore the patterns of visual strategies for effective GBL, this study used eye-tracking technology to track and observe players’ eye movements while learning in a GBL environment. In addition, this study also aimed at examining the roles of flow and game achievement in conceptual learning achievement in GBL. Several important findings can be summarized: First, the lower conceptual achieving players paid more visual attention to the components of the learning task, the graphic icons, the labels and the terminological definitions, suggesting that they might have had difficulties in comprehending these conceptual representations while playing. And the higher conceptual achieving players seemed to have more efficient text-reading strategies while viewing the relevant information embedded to help learning and playing. This could suggest that decoding and processing relevant information efficiently is important for GBL. Second, the players gaining more learning achievements showed a significant visual escape from the feedback messages, but were then able to return to the learning task, showing better metacognitive control of their visual attention. On the contrary, the players with less learning achievements showed problems in decoding the messages in which their attention was trapped when they returned to the game. Third, the players with better conceptual learning reported that they had experienced higher flow in terms of their sense of control and concentration while playing the game. Finally, two eye-tracking measures, the percentage of fixation count and the percentage of fixation duration, could be significant indicators for the flow experience in game-based learning, especially for the time-distortion feeling.