- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Wind conditions in the built environment are complex in nature and characterized by lower wind speeds and higher turbulence due to the presence of obstructions. A growing body of literature and research/testing activities related to performance evaluation of small wind turbines (SWTs) in urban wind conditions have inferred that urban installed SWTs are subjected to higher level of turbulence and face dynamic loading that impedes their performance, and reduces fatigue life. This paper reviews the diverse studies conducted on the application of SWT technology in the built environment to understand the characteristics of inflowing wind, their performance and identify the gaps in the knowledge. This review paper also investigates the extent to which the international design standard for SWTs, IEC 41400-2, is valid for urban installations. The findings from this review show that the wind models incorporated in IEC 61400-2 is not suitable for installation of SWTs in the built environment. The authors recommend a thorough study through measured data and characterization of urban wind to make current standard inclusive of wind classes that characterize urban wind conditions. Thus, SWT design can be made more consistent with urban wind conditions and their performance and reliability can be assured.
This review has investigated the characteristics of wind in the urban environment, with a particular focus on the application of SWTs installed in such setting. In terms of understanding the inflow to wind turbines in urban environments, phenomena like the stochastic nature and the intermittency in urban wind flows are very important in terms of turbine functioning. Several studies have been carried out in characterizing the urban wind and identifying the extent to which currently used wind models are valid for built environment installations. These studies have identified key parameters such as hub-height, atmospheric stability and turbulent length scales that influence the behaviour of the turbines.