- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Arranging a solar irradiation map of the buildings of a city is a valuable tool for sustainable urban planning in regard to non-carbonized criteria in important applications. Such applications may include: selection of materials for the building envelope and insulation according to the irradiation received at each point; monitoring the installation of photovoltaic systems to ensure that they are located in the optimal irradiance zones; or building restoration to improve the energy efficiency and electric generation. The proposed method enables to estimate the incidence of the solar irradiance as well as to visualize the effect it produces in every region of the buildings that compose the urban area of a city. The process includes the use of Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) information along with 5-min horizontal irradiance data. This developed algorithm has been verified through being applied to different building envelopes distributed in different geographical areas. The results demonstrate a satisfied performance which makes that the methodology can be extrapolated to any city where the LiDAR Data and irradiance information are available, permitting an accurate analysis of the solar irradiance over the building envelopes. The algorithm succeeds in obtaining a map of solar radiation captured by the envelope of any urban building that estimates the photovoltaic power generation depending on the geographic location and on the influence of shading caused by adjacent buildings. The provided results show clear evidence of the influence of the shade effect produced by both, the building itself and other nearby buildings. Even if the shading effect is a factor that determines the irradiation gradient, the orientation of the facades has been proven to be the most important parameter in seeking a higher value of irradiation. As a result, south facing walls present wider regions with greater irradiance values, which are of interest for photovoltaic implementation. In addition, monthly analyses have shown that the best-oriented facades have produce their maximum solar power during equinox months, March and September. This method is considered as a useful tool for sustainable urban planning and for building integrated photovoltaics development. Although the entire envelope of a building can be studied, this paper is limited to the analysis of the facades.
Proper use of building facades for photovoltaic energy production could provide 100% of the energy requirements of households in cities. A previous analysis of building envelopes’ photovoltaic potential is essential to design energy-efficient and environmentally sustainable cities. The proposed method enables one to estimate the solar irradiance (kW h/m2 ) and to visualize it in every area of each facade of a city by the use of LiDAR information and monthly irradiance data. Results are stored on a 5-min basis so it is possible to perform monthly or yearly analyses. The influence of the building’s own shading and the one produced by nearby buildings is one of the main effects of an increasing irradiation gradient as the upper points are analyzed. However, the orientation of the facades has been proven to be the most important influencing parameter to obtain a higher irradiation value. Monthly analyses demonstrate that the best-oriented facades have the greatest irradiance harvesting during equinox months. The algorithm has been validated on different building envelopes distributed around various geographical areas. Therefore, it can be stated that it is perfectly extrapolated to any city where LiDAR and solar irradiance information are available. Thus, the solar irradiance over the buildings’ envelopes can be rigorously analyzed, allowing to select the solution that best meets the trinomial performance/production/profitability in each building. This algorithm succeeds in obtaining a map of solar radiation captured by the envelope of any urban building (0.5 m grid resolution) using a new methodology that estimates the photovoltaic power generation based on the geographic location and influence of shading caused by adjacent buildings. Arranging a solar irradiation map of the buildings of a city is a valuable tool for sustainable urban planning with non-carbonized criteria in important applications. Such applications may include: (1) an analysis of energy efficiency of the building, (2) selection of materials for the building envelope and insulation according to the irradiation received in each point of the facade, (3) profitability monitoring of the photovoltaic installation depending on its irradiance zone, (4) adapting the esthetics of existing buildings according to their irradiation (less monotonous facades), (5) buildings restoration to improve the energy efficiency and the electric generation, (6) refurbishing and regenerating degraded urban areas or (7) planning new sustainable energy developments.