- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Soybean is the important crop with abundant protein, vegetable oil, and several phytochemicals. With such predominant values, soybean is cultivated with a long history. However, flooding and drought stresses exert deleterious effects on soybean growth. The present review summarizes the morphological changes and affected events in soybean exposed to such extreme-water conditions. Sensitive organ in stressed soybean at differentdevelopmental stages is presented based on protein profiles. Protein quality control and calcium homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum are discussed in soybean under both stresses. In addition, the way of calcium homeostasis in mediating protein folding and energy metabolism is addressed. Finally, stress response to flooding and drought is systematically demonstrated. This review concludes the recent findings of plant response to flooding and drought stresses in soybean employed proteomic approaches. Biological significance: Soybean is considered as traditional-health food because of nutritional elements and pharmacological values. Flooding and drought exert deleterious effects to soybean growth. Proteomic approaches have been employed to elucidate stress response in soybean exposed to flooding and drought stresses. In this review, stress response is presented on organ-specific manner in the early-stage plant and soybean seedling exposed to combined stresses. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced by both stresses; and stress-response in the ER is addressed in the root tip of early-stage soybean. Moreover, calcium-response processes in stressed plant are described in the ER and in the cytosol. Additionally, stress-dependent response was discussed in flooded and drought-stressed plant. This review depicts stress response in the sensitive organ of stressed soybean and forms the basis to develop molecular markers related to plant defense under flooding and drought stresses.
7. Conclusion and future prospects
Flooding and drought stresses exert deleterious effects on soybean growth . Considering the importance of soybean, clarification of the underlying mechanisms in response to combined stresses is absolutely needed. Organ-specific analysis indicated that root tip in the early-stage soybean was more sensitive to both stresses than other organs. Protein quality control and calcium homeostasis were disrupted in the ER of soybean exposed to combined stresses. Furthermore, increased-cytosolic calcium in stressed soybean was verified from the ER and it further induced the accumulation of pyruvate decarboxylase. These findings employing proteomic studies suggest that calcium homeostasis might represent the bridge between cytosol and subcellular compartment in plant cell of soybean-root tip in response to combined stresses. In addition, calcium release from the ER was required for unfolded protein response  and elevated cytosolic calcium directed pyruvate in stressed soybean , indicating the importance of calcium roles on protein metabolism and energy regulation to cope with flooding and drought stresses.
On the other hand, decreased-ribosomal proteins were responsible for suppressed-protein synthesis; however, heterogeneity in ribosomal proteins displayed different selectivity for translating sub-pools of transcripts in mammalian cell . This sheds light on ribosome specificity in plant in response to stresses. Stress-dependent response was compared between flooding and drought; however, upstream events such as stress sensing and transduction are limited, suggesting that concerns might be placed on emphasis. Overall, elucidation of stress-response processes based on integrated datasets of “-omics”, clarification of responsive pathways from stress sensing to plant adaptation, and validation of protein function in vivo will aid in developing stress-tolerant soybean in the future.