- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
The growing global demand for energy from fossil fuels plays a key role in the upward trend in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollutants. Rapid population growth and increasing energy demand in the developing countries have brought many concerns such as poverty, pollution, health and environmental problems. While for these countries, particularly the poorest ones, modern energy is necessary to stimulate production, income generation and social development plus reduce the serious health issues that are caused by the use of fuelwood, charcoal, animal dung and agricultural waste. Solar energy is the best answer to energy poverty and it can provide excellent opportunities for reduction of GHG emissions and indoor air pollution through substituting kerosene for lighting and firewood for cooking. Solar photovoltaic (PV) can be an appropriate technology for a source of renewable electricity in developing nations especially in remote rural areas where grid extensions are financially or technically not viable. PV can also be used to reduce demand for fossil fuels and associated emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The use of PV systems can reduce 69–100 million tons of CO2, 126,000–184,000 t of SO2 and 68,000–99,000 t of NOx by 2030. In case countries use concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, each square meter of concentrator surface is enough to save about 200–300 kg (kg) of CO2 emissions annually. Although there are excellent renewable opportunities in many developing countries, several key barriers have prevented large-scale deployment of solar energy technologies in these countries. This study reviews the sources of energy-related emissions, risks of climate change, global solar energy potential, sustainability indicators of renewable energies, environmental impacts of fossil fuels and renewable energies, benefits of solar energy utilization. It also discusses barriers to widespread use of solar energy.
Ensuring access to reliable and sustainable modern energy services is vital for development. The most important environmental issue relating to energy production and utilization is the greenhouse gases and their harmful effects. The high potential of renewable energies to provide an increasing share of future energy growth without increasing greenhouse gas emissions has been making countries to consider the role of renewables in meeting future energy needs.
Solar energy technologies have a great potential for overcoming energy poverty issues for growing population and raising the living standards. Since solar energy is zero air pollution during power generation, thus it provides excellent environmental benefits when compared to the conventional energy sources; it reduces CO2 emissions and other pollutants, slows down the global temperature trend and suggests a workable model for sustainable energy strategies.
Solar energy as a renewable energy can play a crucial role in achieving safe and secure energy future with diversification. Solar electric power systems and solar cookers are the most direct and useful applications of solar energy technologies. The solar cookers provide better kitchen environment to rural women in the developing countries and as a healthy option can improve their health standards. Off-grid solar system solutions can be deployed rapidly and customized to local needs and are often the only option for electrification in areas where grid extensions are financially or technically infeasible. Although solar energy has many advantages for the environment, economy, and society at large, there are some barriers impeding the solar energies diffusion such as the installed cost of solar panels, which is an important challenging aspect.