- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Infectious diseases remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A wide range of diverse, novel classes of natural antibiotics have been isolated from different snake species in the recent past. Snake venoms contain diverse groups of proteins with potent antibacterial activity against a wide range of human pathogens. Some snake venom molecules are pharmacologically attractive, as they possess promising broad-spectrum antibacterial activities. Furthermore, snake venom proteins (SVPs)/peptides also bind to integrins with high affinity, thereby inhibiting cell adhesion and accelerating wound healing in animal models. Thus, SVPs are a potential alternative to chemical antibiotics. The mode of action for many antibacterial peptides involves pore formation and disruption of the plasma membrane. This activity often includes modulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-jB) activation during skin wound healing. The NF-jB pathway negatively regulates the transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1/Smad pathway by inducing the expression of Smad7 and eventually reducing in vivo collagen production at the wound sites. In this context, SVPs that regulate the NF-jB signaling pathway may serve as potential targets for drug development.
8. Concluding remarks
Although the bites of certain snakes can be deadly, their venoms contain diverse components of medical, biotechnological, and pharmaceutical importance . Proteins and peptides derived from natural toxins found in animal venoms provide an invaluable template for developing new drugs to treat human disorders. Toxicology and clinical safety are the most common reasons for the failure of these molecules during development and clinical studies [92,93]. The venom-derived drugs currently under development must be passed through preclinical evaluation/clinical trials to examine their therapeutic efficacies before translation . The medical industry is currently focusing on disulfide-rich peptides, as broad-spectrum molecular tools to treat diverse clinical disorders or infections [95,96]. These therapeutic peptides may be useful for oral delivery, as some peptide drugs can breach the blood–brain barrier and be translocated across cell membranes. Thus, intracellular targets  can be considered with high potency and specificity . In addition, these peptide molecules highlight the importance of peptide drugs, which are of great potential despite the several challenges that lie ahead. SVPs and peptides may be potentially useful, novel antibiotics to combat infections, including those caused by antibioticresistant bacteria such as S. aureus and Enterococcus. For example, the disintegrin-like, cysteine-rich snake protein alternagin is a potent inhibitor of collagen-induced adhesion by blocking a2b1 integrin, cytokines, and TGF-b influences during wound healing. Annexin-A1 (ANXA1) is an important regulator of wound healing and may act in coordination with both NF-jB and TGF-b1/Smad signaling pathways. Molecular cross talk is often seen between the NF-jB and TGF-b1/Smad signaling pathways during skin wound healing. Snake venom contains various groups of proteins and peptides that exhibit antibacterial activity against a wide range of human pathogens. Some of these multifunctional proteins also promote wound healing in well-established animal models by modulating NF-jB activation. Ultimately, small venom-derived candidate molecules such as peptides may serve as useful tools to develop novel anti-inflammatory and wound healing therapeutics.