- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
In an era of smart cities, planning support systems (PSS) offer the potential to harness the power of urban big data and support land-use and transport planning. PSS encapsulate data-driven modelling approaches for envisioning alternative future cities scenarios. They are widely available but have limited adoption in the planning profession (Russo, Lanzilotti, Costabile, & Pettit, 2017). Research has identified issues preventing their mainstream adoption to be, among others, the gap between PSS supply and demand (Geertman, 2016), their difficulty of use, a need for greater understanding of PSS capabilities and a lack of awareness of their applications (Russo et al., 2017; Vonk, Geertman, & Schot, 2005). To address this, a review of five PSS is conducted in the context of four vignettes applied in Australia and applicable internationally. A critical review has been undertaken, demonstrating how these PSS provide an evidence basis to understand, model and manage growing cities. The results suggest that PSS can assist in undertaking key tasks associated with the planning process. In addition to supporting planning and decision making, PSS can potentially enable better co-ordination between city, state and federal planning and infrastructure agencies, thus promoting a multi-scaled approach that improves local and national data sharing, modelling, reporting and scenario planning. The research demonstrates that PSS can assist in navigating the complexities of rapid multi-faceted urban growth to achieve better-informed planning outcomes. The paper concludes by outlining ways PSS address limitations of the past and can begin to address anticipated future challenges.
The use of digital PSS has the capacity to enable sustainable or even regenerative growth in rapidly urbanising areas, but this requires continued improvements to address the challenges confronting their mainstream adoption. Within the context of Australia, the use of PSS supports the pillars of the Smart Cities Plan by leveraging open data driven solutions and conducting robust evaluations of development scenarios to guide smarter policy and infrastructure investment. Globally, smart cities are continually refining their visions, strategies and policies to break down silos, spur innovation and embrace greater ICT connectivity. The PSS tools critically reviewed in this paper enable city planners and policy makers to measure and identify relationships between data inputs and factors and their likely impact on cities. For example: housing prices, travel times, public transit locations, land area, terrain, flood zones, and developer contributions surrounding infrastructure. Although planning practice is becoming more receptive to PSS, the development of more agile PSS tools that can invite easy, inexpensive and collaborative scenario building has not yet happened. However, as governments move towards open data policies and clearer data standards and universities integrate PSS education and training into curriculums, widespread use of PSS could become a reality. The mainstream use of digital PSS has the capacity to enable sustainable or even regenerative growth in rapidly urbanising areas by providing timely evidence bases to assist policy makers in delivering better city planning outcomes. With such tools, the anxiety about future growth in cities can be embraced and resolved into a more hopeful recognition of potential change as we continue to strive for more sustainable, productive, equitable and resilient cities. However, it is essential that citizens and local communities be increasingly engaged in the use of PSS, and this remains a fundamental challenge to ‘smart’ city planning.