- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Purpose: Criminological theories of crime, delinquency, and deviancy emphasize the causal role of low selfcontrol whereas models of psychopathology posit a general trait liability, “disinhibition”, contributing to persistent antisocial behavior and substance use. The aim of the current work was to link these compatible perspectives on deviancy through reference to a biobehavioral conceptualization of disinhibition. Methods: We examined how the Grasmick et al. (1993) self-control scale, relates to (a) trait disinhibition as indexed by self-report scales, performance on inhibitory-control tasks, and brain reactivity to cognitive stimuli, and (b) a cross-domain index combining measures from these three domains. Results: As expected, variation in self-control was robustly associated with antisocial deviance, substance use problems, and measures of disinhibition across measurement domains. Further, a factor analytic model provided compelling evidence that the Grasmick et al. scale operates as a robust indicator within a biobehavioral conceptualization of disinhibition. Conclusions: Findings confirm a strong link between self-control and trait disinhibition, and support the view that deficits in self-control have a prominent biobehavioral basis. Research in the areas of criminology and psychopathology can mutually benefit from a focus on influences contributing to variations in self-control, conceptualized as trait disinhibition.
The current study sought to integrate criminological and psychopathology perspectives on delinquency vis-à-vis a conceptual and empirically derived neurobehavioral model of disinhibition. Consistent with primary hypotheses, and consistent with prior published research (Pratt & Cullen, 2000; Vazsonyi et al., 2017), we found that overall scores on the Grasmick et al. (1993) self-control inventory showed robust negative associations with antisocial behavior and substance use. Additionally, we found low self-control to be associated with high levels of disinhibition assessed across multiple levels of analysis (self-reports, inhibitory control lab-task measures, and neurophysiological functioning assessed by variants of the P3 brain response measure from separate cognitive tasks). Whereas associations for total scores from the Grasmick et al. (1993) inventory were largely consistent with hypotheses, results for individual facet scales were mixed. Notably the Impulsivity and Temper scales were consistently related to delinquency and trait disinhibition across measurement domains. While the Risk Taking and Self-Centeredness scales were mostly associated with selfreported delinquency and disinhibition, they were largely unrelated to the behavioral-performance and neurophysiological domains of disinhibition. Further, the Simple Tasks and Physical Activities scales were modestly associated with self-reported disinhibition, but negligibly related to non-report factors of trait disinhibition and to antisocial and substance use outcome measures. These results are consistent with recent work (Jones, 2017) indicating that not all facets of the Grasmick et al. measure of self-control are predictive of delinquency, and future work with this scale may benefit from further refinement to maximize its predictive validity. As discussed further below, scale refinement efforts are likely to benefit from use of trait disinhibition measures and consideration of neurobehavioral-systems constructs.