- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Bionics (the imitation or abstraction of the “inventions of nature) and, to an even greater extent, synthetic biology, will be as relevant to engineering development and industry as the silicon chip was over the last 50 years. Chemical industries already use so-called “white biotechnology” for new processes, new raw materials, and more sustainable use of resources. Synthetic biology is also used for the development of second-generation biofuels and for harvesting the sun's energy with the help of tailor-made microorganisms or biometrically designed catalysts. The market potential for bionics in medicine, engineering processes, and DNA storage is huge. “Moonshot” projects are already aggressively focusing on diseases and new materials, and a US-led competition is currently underway with the aim of creating a thousand new molecules. This article describes a timeline that starts with current projects and then moves on to code engineering projects and their implications, artificial DNA, signaling molecules, and biological circuitry. Beyond these projects, one of the next frontiers in bionics is the design of synthetic metabolisms that include artificial food chains and foods, and the bioengineering of raw materials; all of which will lead to new insights into biological principles. Bioengineering will be an innovation motor just as digitalization is today. This article discusses pertinent examples of bioengineering, particularly the use of alternative carbon-based biofuels and the techniques and perils of cell modification. Big data, analytics, and massive storage are important factors in this next frontier. Although synthetic biology will be as pervasive and transformative in the next 50 years as digitization and the Internet are today, its applications and impacts are still in nascent stages. This article provides a general taxonomy in which the development of bioengineering is classified in five stages (DNA analysis, bio-circuits, minimal genomes, protocells, xenobiology) from the familiar to the unknown, with implications for safety and security, industrial development, and the development of bioengineering and biotechnology as an interdisciplinary field. Ethical issues and the importance of a public debate about the consequences of bionics and synthetic biology are discussed.
9. The necessity of an academic and public debate
From previous industrial paradigm shifts, we have—post hoc— learned the necessity of an engaged academic and public dialogue. Industry 4.0 has already triggered a debate about what it will be like to live alongside robots in the future. Industry 5.0 discussions touch on the very essence of humanity’s existence, physical integrity, and relationship with nature. At the moment, this debate seems theoretical, yet it will soon come to the fore. As usual, technical advances are ahead of the public debates. A synthetic biology open language (SBOL) is already in place. The field is defined by engineers, and the benefits are couched in engineering terms; that is, engineered biological systems will process information, manipulate chemicals, fabricate materials and structures, produce energy, provide food, and maintain and enhance human health and our environment . Important questions remain as to control of and access to the products, and who will benefit. Should we grant patents on living organisms? How much bioengineering of human embryos is acceptable? How much biological retro-engineering of living humans can we afford or will we permit? Through scenarios and case studies, we must create awareness of the implications of synthetic biology. As an interdisciplinary field, it needs to be integrated into many courses of studies. For example, the universities of Oxford, Bristol, and Warwick have founded a joint doctoral program that admits students from engineering, biology, biochemistry, physics, plant sciences, chemistry, statistics, mathematics, and computing. In addition, synthetic biology research should be developed with a global, open dialogue about the scientific, social, and economic implications, without shying away from a public debate about the ethical aspects of this emerging field.