- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
OBJECTIVE. Household energy security has not been measured empirically or related to child health and development but is an emerging concern for clinicians and researchers as energy costs increase. The objectives of this study were to develop a clinical indicator of household energy security and assess associations with food security, health, and developmental risk in children 36 months of age. METHODS. A cross-sectional study that used household survey and surveillance data was conducted. Caregivers were interviewed in emergency departments and primary care clinics form January 2001 through December 2006 on demographics, public assistance, food security, experience with heating/cooling and utilities, Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status, and child health. The household energy security indicator includes energy-secure, no energy problems; moderate energy insecurity, utility shutoff threatened in past year; and severe energy insecurity, heated with cooking stove, utility shutoff, or 1 day without heat/cooling in past year. The main outcome measures were household and child food security, child reported health status, Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status concerns, and hospitalizations.