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Purpose – Green building construction was adopted as a strategy to reduce energy consumption and the overall impact of the built environment on our natural environment. However, in Malaysia, previous studies have reaffirmed that green office buildings consume a substantial amount of energy, compared to their counterparts in Singapore. Moreover, there is still a significant performance gap between predicted energy measurements and actual operational energy consumption of green office buildings in Malaysia, due to occupants’ behavioural discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop energy efficiency practices for occupants of green office buildings in Malaysia. The developed practices integrate technology, organisation policy, and occupants’ behavioural strategies, in order to reduce the energy consumption of green office buildings in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach – To achieve the research goal, a mixed (quantitative and qualitative) research method was used to collect data from the research population. In total, 53 respondents working in a green office building complex in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia were surveyed using a questionnaire. Additionally, three top management staff of the green office building and two Malaysian construction professionals were interviewed. The study adopted convenience sampling technique in selecting the research respondents. The data from the questionnaire were analysed using SPSS software (version 22) while the interview data were analysed via thematic content analysis. Findings – The findings suggest that the integration of technological strategy (use of BIM tools, sustainable building materials, etc.); organisational strategy (develop, implement and evaluate action plans, use of monitor/control systems, etc.); and occupants behavioural strategy (training, incentives, occupants energy efficiency guide, etc.) will critically reduce energy consumption of green office buildings in Malaysia. Originality/value – Based on the findings, energy efficiency practices are developed to guide occupants in reducing the energy consumption of green office buildings in Malaysia. This strategy will contribute to reducing the performance gap that exists between predicted energy and actual energy use of green office buildings in Malaysia. However, the developed energy efficiency practices need to be validated to ascertain its workability in the green office building context.
Literature studies reiterated that green office buildings in Malaysia consume a substantial amount of energy due to poor design decision, organisational culture, and behavioural discrepancies among the occupants (Hassan et al., 2015). Therefore, this study investigated how occupants interact with their green building features, and strategies for improving occupant behavioural discrepancies in green office buildings in Malaysia. However, mixed method research was conducted to survey the respondents. SPSS software and thematic content analysis were used to analyse the questionnaire and interview data, respectively.
The result was discussed via constant comparative method, which enabled us to highlight strategies for reducing the energy consumption of green office buildings in Malaysia. As a result of this, EE practices have been developed. The research output will guide occupants to reduce energy use in Malaysian green office buildings by integrating technology, organisation policy, and occupant behavioural strategies. Specifically, the EE practices developed in this study highlighted that adopting technological strategies such as BIM energy simulation and analysis tool; organisational policies such as setting EE goals and action plan; and occupants behaviour strategy that will effect occupant behavioural change is paramount for enhancing energy performance of green office buildings in Malaysia. Also, it will help in reducing the performance gap that exists between predicted energy and actual energy use of green office buildings in Malaysia.
However, this study is limited to GBI-rated green office buildings because the majority of the office buildings in Malaysia are certified or assessed using GBI as of the time of this study. Besides the study focussed on green buildings located in the capital city of Malaysia which is Kuala Lumpur. Therefore, more research is needed on green office buildings that are rated with other Malaysian’s green building rating tools such as MyCREST. Also, the study should be extended to other states in Malaysia, in order to establish a more comprehensive guide for green office buildings occupants in Malaysia.