- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Crisis management represents a multidisciplinary topic in many sciences. Social sciences, state affairs, medicine, engineering and many others are interested to handle unforeseen major great impact events. The paper presents some differences and common topics of crisis management using two different approaches. The first is Public Relations (PR), as part of the communication sciences; and the second is the Holonic Multi-Agent (HMAS) Concept, which is a research topic belonging to software engineering and computational sciences. We have two different approaches, but one common goal: providing the feasible support for the crisis management team under abnormal working conditions. Dealing with the holonic approach, the paper suggests a centralized distributed crises management, a non-linear approach in which the human factor’s intuition, skills and expertise are key elements.
5. Conclusions and future work
During the paper we presented two scientific approaches for the same problem of crises management. Analysing the weaknesses and strengths of each, we propose a centralised crisis management approach on which the crises handling entities focus on their role, rather than to perform certain tasks. The goal orientation of the constituent elements increases their autonomy and adaptability to the previously unmet situation.
Automation, computers and stable communication relations among entities increases complacency, especially if the system performs well for a long period. In crisis situations a new approach based on intuition, synthetic mind, self-control and last, but not the least, cooperation and efficient communication is required. In order to deal with the unexpected we must have a non-linear approach, in which humans and their expertise and experience are key assets. The non-linear approach here means to give up predefined handling algorithms based of the previous best practice if the situation completely new. It is pointless to assume that something that in some previous and different conditions worked will work once again. The holonic concept shows us that goal and role definition is better way of handling crises, than rigid mechanisms based on previous experience. On the other hand, we propose more focus on reputation management and external communication during crises as the PR theory and practice show. A pure techno-centred approach may ignore the ambitions, emotions of the humans involved in crises and also might undertreat the impact of a crises situation on reputation. Stakeholders involved in crises (for example NGO reactions) may cause more damages than the crises itself. For example, the failure of a technological equipment causes less damages than the bad reputation caused by the negative advertisement made by an NGO related to the unsafe technologies revealed.