- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Inclusive design has unique challenges because it aims to improve usability for a wide range of users. This typically includes people with lower levels of ability, as well as mainstream users. This paper examines the effectiveness of two methods that are used in inclusive design: user trials and exclusion calculations (an inclusive design inspection method). A study examined three autoinjectors using both methods (n ¼ ۳۰ for the user trials). The usability issues identified by each method are compared and the effectiveness of the methods is discussed. The study found that each method identified different kinds of issues, all of which are important for inclusive design. We therefore conclude that a combination of methods should be used in inclusive design rather than relying on a single method. Recommendations are also given for how the individual methods can be used more effectively in this context.
This study examined the effectiveness of two methods that are currently used in inclusive design: user trials and exclusion calculations. Both methods were used to examine three autoinjectors. The study found that each method, on its own, failed to identify all the usability problems. In contrast, when used together, the methods complemented each other. Each provided insight that the other lacked, as well as improving the execution of the other method. In particular, the user trials were more effective at identifying unexpected user actions and cognitive issues, while the exclusion calculations were better at identifying problems for people with low capabilities. The calculations also focused attention on the “highest hurdles”: those aspects of product use that really limit the numbers who can use it, no matter how inclusive other aspects are. Together with the population exclusion figures,this can help designers to prioritise design effort where it will really make a difference. The paper also provides recommendations for how the individual methods can be used more effectively in inclusive design. However, the methods should ideally be used together to ensure a wide range of inclusive design issues are covered. More case studies are needed to fully evaluate the contributions of different methods in inclusive design. Further work is also needed to improve and assess the methods based on the study findings. In particular, a survey is being developed to gather data more suited to exclusion calculations (Tenneti et al., submitted for publication). This should particularly improve the examination of cognitive issues, but work is needed to assess its effectiveness in practice.