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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), synthesized by assembling metal nods with organic linkers, are highly ordered crystalline materials. MOFs have attracted much attention for applications in electrochemical sensors because of their unique chemical and physical properties including ultrahigh porosity, large surface area, tunable structure, and high thermal and chemical stability. Especially, redox and catalytic active sites introduced by use of active metal ions and/or ligands endow MOFs with the functions of electrochemical sensing. Moreover, precise chemical modification of functional molecules and immobilization with metal nanoparticles, carbon nanostructures and biomolecules could promote their electrochemical performances. In this review, we focus on recent progress achieved in MOF research with respect to general sensing principles and analytical performances of electrochemical sensors. The evaluation and challenges governing the detection of the assays are also discussed.
6. Conclusions and Outlook
As a new kind of crystalline molecular material, MOFs are emerging as a very effective tool for electrochemical sensing applications, because of the excellent advantages such as ultrahigh porosity, large surface areas, large pore volume, tunable structure, thermal and chemical stability, and chemical functionality. These electrochemical sensors possess some merits, as illustrated in Table 1. Firstly, the MOFs modified on the electrodes could be used as electrochemical signal probes and large amounts of redox metal ions provide high signals. Secondly, the MOFs could act as catalysts to catalyze the electrochemistry of redox mediators and high catalytic activity is obtained because of the abundant active sites. Thirdly, the MOFs could be employed as an ideal loading platform to load recognition probes or signal probes due to the rationally ordered structure and stable micropores. The specific identification of targets by the MOFs may be ascribed to the interactions via hydrogen bonding, π-π interactions, open metal sites, and van der Waals interactions. The incorporation of the heterogeneous nanostructured materials in the MOFs promotes the development of applications for the MOF-based materials in the area of electrochemical sensing.