- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Forest certification, under both the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the PEFC-endorsed Chilean CERTFOR schemes, has been widely adopted in both the native and plantation forestry sectors in Chile. This study of the impacts of forest certification on Chilean forestry businesses is based in-depth interviews with 72 actors representing a diversity of roles and perspectives in the Chilean forestry sector. The impacts of certification have been greatest in the plantation forestry sector, and for larger businesses. These impacts include the cessation of deforestation for plantation establishment, rehabilitation of natural ecosystems, greater benefits to local communities, and the development of a positive dialogue between forestry businesses and their stakeholders. However, certification has not resolved some long-standing conflicts between forestry businesses and other actors, notably in relation to Indigenous peoples' land claims and workers' rights. Both certification schemes in Chile have promoted legal compliance; FSC certification is encouraging improvements beyond legal compliance, and deepening the changes initiated by CERTFOR. The results illustrate how certification can contribute to effective hybrid governance regimes, but also of the limits of certification in addressing deeply-entrenched social conflicts. Nevertheless, the impacts of certification for Chilean forestry businesses and their stakeholders have largely been positive.
This research shows that Chilean forestry businesses were motivated to adopt certification for similar reasons to businesses elsewhere; and that certification is making a substantial difference to plantation and native forestry businesses in Chile, particularly for large plantation forestry businesses. In terms of impacts, certification proved a relatively effective governance mechanism (sensu Tikina and Innes, 2008) to address unsustainable forest management compared with Chile's traditional forest governance, for a number of reasons. It ameliorated deforestation and reduced many social conflicts (problem solving); it granted a social license to operate and ensured market access in many cases (goal attainment); most companies adopted and deepened sustainable forestry practices (behavioral effectiveness); plantation forestry businesses largely adopted FSC and CERTFOR certification (process effectiveness); and local communities' awareness of certification allowed them to leverage forestry firms' decision-making processes (constitutive effectiveness). This non-state governance approach in the Chilean context has both supplemented and supplanted the role of the state in each of the plantation and natural forestry sectors; this is due to the more effective enforcement mechanism and the higher prescriptiveness of some certification requirements, particularly for plantation forestry businesses. At the same time, as elsewhere, the state has played a key role in facilitating the development and adoption of certification, Government agencies should therefore continue to foster certification to help forestry businesses meet their own sustainability goals; however this poses a challenge given the (a) domestic orientation of most native forestry businesses (due to low timber yields); (b) lack of appropriate green procurement policies for certified timber; (c) high certification costs, particularly for small, informal and unsustainable forest operations to which certification may yield the greatest change; and (d) the existence of power asymmetries in the timber supply chain between large and small-medium plantation forestry businesses.