- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare illness and its management is largely based on published data from female breast cancer (FBC). The objective of this review was to evaluate the literature to determine if MBC is adequately understood, studied and treated, both medically and psychologically, despite its rarity. Methods: A literature search was conducted, using PubMed, ProQuest, EBSCOHOST, and PsycINFO, for all articles containing the term “male breast cancer” or “male breast carcinoma” and published in English up to October 2015. Additional references were obtained from secondary search engines like Google Scholar and the citation lists of sourced articles. Results: Published literature and public and healthcare awareness of MBC are far more limited than for FBC. Combined with misperception of breast cancer as a ‘female illness’, this may contribute to delayed diagnosis, worse prognosis, stigma and limited psychosocial support for male patients. Inconsistent use of medical treatment modalities, fewer treatment benefits, sparse safety data and a paucity of psychosocial research and services, as compared to FBC, may further contribute to poorer outcomes in MBC. Differences in etiological, diagnostic and treatment data between MBC and FBC also challenge the applicability of FBC management strategies to MBC. Conclusion: MBC is a distinct condition that is much less understood, significantly understudied, and possibly undertreated, than FBC. Prospective research is essential to establish MBC-specific standards of care and guide medical and psychological interventions. Public and health professional education is also needed to raise awareness of MBC, reduce stigma and facilitate early detection.
MBC is a rare illness that, compared to FBC, is much less understood, considerably understudied and possibly also undertreated (particularly in the psychological sphere). Sex differences in hormonal milieu, risk factors, disease biology and treatment outcomes support a reconceptualization of MBC from simply a version of FBC to a distinct condition that requires customized management [10,11,49]. Evidence-based standards of care for MBC are much needed to guide comprehensive and appropriate medical and psychological treatment and improve prognosis. Public and health professional education on MBC is also essential to reduce stigma, counter gendered misperceptions of BC, facilitate early diagnosis, and increase psychosocial support for male patients.