- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
This study investigates the determinants of competitive advantages in tourism services for the EU-28 countries over the period 2000–2013. After having extended the Balassa methodology to measure competitive advantages, a dynamic panel data model is implemented to explain their drivers. The econometric analysis indicates that specific factor-proportions variables, as well as variables related to the new trade theory, contribute significantly to the explanation of international competitive advantages in tourism. At the same time, factors related to the new trade theory help strengthening these advantages. Particularly interesting seems to be our finding about the negative statistical association between competitive advantages in tourism and the overall efficiency of the country, measured by per capita GDP. Some policy and managerial implications conclude the work.
This study has investigated the competitive advantages in tourism and their drivers for the EU-28 countries. To this purpose, a traditional Balassa index and its extended version have been calculated on data collected from Eurostat and UNCTAD statistics for the period 2000–2013.
The results suggest that Mediterranean countries have competitive advantages in tourism, but the degree of specialization varies across the countries: Croatia and Greece have strong competitive advantages; Malta, Portugal and Spain own medium competitive advantages; France, Italy, Cyprus and Slovenia have low competitive advantages. Moreover, competitive advantages in tourism remain stable over the years 2000–2013 for Greece, Spain and Portugal, while they decrease somewhat for France and Italy.
Northern and eastern countries show more complex patterns. While Hungary and Austria have the strongest competitive advantage in tourism outside the Mediterranean group, the competitive advantages of some eastern countries can be due to the ‘small size’ effect.
To better assess the nature of the international specialization in tourism, a dynamic panel data model has been estimated. The econometric findings show that both the H-O and the new trade variables are important drivers of competitive advantages in tourism, therefore supporting an eclectic view of international specialization in tourism services.
Indeed, on the one hand, we find that being endowed with natural and cultural resources increases a country's competitive advantage in tourism services. The intuition is simple: following the factor-proportions theory, a country with a favourable natural and cultural environment should specialize in tourism services. The empirical results support this conclusion and would suggest that the productive activities closely linked to the natural and cultural environment should be encouraged and advertised in order to strengthen competitive advantages and attract more tourists. At the same time, the greatest challenge for a tourism-based economy consists in preserving natural and cultural resources. This is important from an ecological, managerial and economic perspective given that competitiveness in tourism services can be strengthened by safeguarding the attractiveness of the environment and by a sustainable management of resources. By adopting energy conservation and pollution prevention schemes, countries can gain sustainable competitive advantages generating positive images of tourist destinations, improving reputation and increasing the number of visitors. This is also important for an effective tourism planning oriented to maintain the quality of tourist experience and shape perceptions of place and lifestyles. Despite the possibility of some externalities, the experience made by some visitors may enhance a destination's appeal and increase its value.