- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
The study meta-analytically integrates results from three decades of human capital research in entrepreneurship. Based on 70 independent samples (N= 24,733), we found a significant but small relationship between human capital and success (rc= .098). We examined theoretically derived moderators of this relationship referring to conceptualizations of human capital, to context, and to measurement of success. The relationship was higher for outcomes of human capital investments (knowledge/skills) than for human capital investments (education/ experience), for human capital with high task-relatedness compared to low task-relatedness, for young businesses compared to old businesses, and for the dependent variable size compared to growth or profitability. Findings are relevant for practitioners (lenders, policy makers, educators) and for future research. Our findings show that future research should pursue moderator approaches to study the effects of human capital on success. Further, human capital is most important if it is task-related and if it consists of outcomes of human capital investments rather than human capital investments; this suggests that research should overcome a static view of human capital and should rather investigate the processes of learning, knowledge acquisition, and the transfer of knowledge to entrepreneurial tasks.
This meta-analysis provides a useful estimate of the true relationship between human capital and entrepreneurial success. The overall effect size was .098. While this effect size is small by statistical standards (Cohen, 1977), it is as high as, for instance, the correlation between planning and success (r= .10; Brinckmann et al., 2010). While traditional statistical reasoning may argue against the practical importance of such correlations, these correlations may well have important implications, as the field of medical meta-analyses has shown (Meyer et al., 2001). As a matter of fact, a correlation of .10 may well translate into a difference of a two times higher success rate in business owners with a high degree of human capital in comparison to those with a low degree of human capital (Rosenthal and Rubin, 1982).